Albert Einstein (Biographie en Tamazight)

Albert Einstein (ilul ass n 14 Meɣres 1879 deg Ulm, Württemberg, Lalman – yemmut ass n 18 Yebrir 1955 deg Princeton, New Jersey, Iwanaken Yeddukklen), d ussnan almani-aswisi-amarikani.
einstein
Einstein ilul deg yiwet n twacult tudayt deg Lalman. Yenker-d deg temdint n Munich, sakkin tguǧǧ twacult-nnes ɣer Sswis deg 1894. Deg 1902, yeqqel d asekyad (examinateur) deg tnarit n yisnulfuyen n Sswis yernu imir-nni ay yebda yettmahal ɣef teẓra (théories) ay yeqqlen d llsas n tsengama (physique) n lqern wis 20. Yewwi-d aduktuṛa-nnes seg Tesdawit n Zürich deg 1905, yernu aseggas-nni daɣ ay yeqqel mechuṛ deg umaḍal ɣef lǧal n kraḍ n yimagraden ay d-yessuffeɣ: yiwen ɣef umussu abrowni, yiwen ɣef usemdu afatrisan (effet photoélectrique), ma d wayeḍ ɣef teẓri-nnes n timmasseɣt (relativité) aydeg ay d-yessedda asemsel-nnes (formulation) n tegdazalt n ubeddur d teẓwert (E = mc2). Imuhel Einstein d aselmad deg mennaw n yideggen uqbel ma yeqqel d anemhal n Usudu n Kaiser Wilhelm deg Berlin deg 1914. Deg 1915, yessuffeɣ-d tiẓri-nnes tamatut n timmasseɣt yernu, deg 1919, mi d-yella uxsaf n tafukt, wekkden-d dakken tiẓri-nnes tṣeḥḥa. Yewwi Arraz n Nobel deg 1921 ɣef umahil-nnes ɣef usemdu afatrisan, ma d tiẓri-nnes n timmasseɣt yella mazal umjadel fell-as gar wussnanen. Yettekka daɣ deg usnegmu n teẓri n yiger anectuman (théorie quantique des champs), am wakken ay imuhel acḥal n yiseggasen akken ad d-yaf assaɣ usnakan (mathématique) gar tliktṛuddukra (électromagnétisme) d tminzeɣt (gravitaton), imi ay yella yettwali dakken aya d asurif amezwaru ara yessiwḍen ɣer tmussni n yisaḍufen yesseddayen akk ameɣrad (univers), d acu kan, ur yessaweḍ ara ad d-yaf « tiẓri-a yeddukklen n yiger ». Tiẓra-nnes n timmasseɣt d tminzeɣt llant-d d isurifen imeqqranen ay yesseddan tasengama (physique) n Newton ɣer sdat yernu ssegrawlent anadi ussnan d ufelsufan. Yettaxer Einstein seg unsa-nnes (poste) de Tkadimit Taprusit asmi ay yeṭṭef Adolf Hitler adabu deg Lalman, yernu iguǧǧ ɣer Princeton, deg New Jersey (Iwanaken Yeddukklen) anda ay yudef ɣer Usudu n Tezrawin Tinaẓiyin (Institute of Advanced Study). Einstein yella d ameẓralwi (pacifiste) d acu kan, deg 1939, yurar dduṛ s wazal-nnes deg useqneɛ n uselway Franklin Roosevelt akken ad d-bdun Asenfar n Manhattan i lmend n tigit n tleffuɣt tabelkimant (bombe atomique). Ula ma netta s timmad-nnes ur yettekka ara deg usenfar-nni, maca tiẓra-nnes ttekkant s waṭas deg usnegmu (développement) n tleffuɣt-a. Asmi ay ifuk Umgaru Anmaḍal Wis Sin, Einstein yella d netta ay d ussnan mechuṛen akk deg umaḍal. Ssumren-as-d ad yeqqel d aneɣlaf amenzu n Isṛayil, maca yugi. Nnig waya, yeqqel daɣ d yiwet seg tuɣac timeqqranin akk yessuturen tukksa n yimrigen iɣwawanen (armes nucléaires).
 
Sɣur Omar Mouffok (Tiseknudrin n Wudmawen Imeqqranen deg Umezruy s Tutlayt Tamaziɣt)

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